What Will It Take To Solve the India-China Border Dispute?

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The current standoff between the India-China border represents an upsurge that hasn’t seen since 1962. History has witnessed many border disputes. However, this time it is considered to be one of the most serious and dangerous. The disputed China-India border in Ladakh is still an unresolved situation that is going on. The first official note on dispute came on 10th June 2020.

The Army mentioned about the clashes between the India and China border on the Eastern Ladakh side. The Army recognized how the soldiers injured themselves during patrolling in Pangong Tso Lake on the 4th and 5th of May. They also mentioned that on May 9th, the Indian side of the LAC affronted the Chinese patrol with the Indian patrol, which led to the clash between them.

Evolution of Boundaries

The Line of Actual Control (LAC) is the border between the Chinese occupied Ladakh and India. It is the line between Aksai Chin and India. In 1993 a bilateral agreement formed the LAC. There was a war in 1962 between both the countries, on Himalayan Border which was the main cause of the war. India rejected the diplomatic settlement proposed by China, after which it turned into an aggressive point and led to war. The demarcated line between Pakistan and India is called the Line of Control (LOC).

On the contrary, the LAC isn’t clearly defined. Both the countries, i.e. China and India, have different perceptions about the demarcation of the LAC that exactly where it lies. The various claims of both countries created an overlapping territory between them. It’s called the Grey Area or Area of different perception.

Line of Actual Control (LAC) 

India and China are demarcated by the LAC. It always reminds a significant tension between them. The LAC is a 4057 km border that is running across both the countries. Both countries have different perceptions of the area because of which many disputes and clashes. In the last few years, it has sharpened when military infrastructure was built in New Delhi. Beijing’s defence has built up the deployment of troops in response. The LAC is split according to three directions. The classification is as follows:

Western LAC covers the Ladakh and Kashmir, the Middle LAC constitutes Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh, and the Eastern LAC includes the region of Sikkim and Arunachal. From these three directions, transgressions are more frequent from the Western Side of the LAC. There was a constant dialogue between the two sides. The two countries have signed different pacts. However, many pacts and deals are pending, which would create an area of similar perception rather than an area of different perception.

Border Tensions

The border tensions brewing between India and China raises many questions. Have the Chinese troops invaded the Indian territory? The border tension has arisen because of the Line of Actual Control (LAC), which is not demarcated adequately between India and China. Both countries have different perceptions about this actual area. So, the area which is between, i.e. the Grey area which is 10 km in the Pangong Iso Lake.

Both country’s army forces come here patrolling which often leads to clashes and conflicts. However, when the Indian Army increase these patrolling in that area, it led the Chinese troops to augment the patrolling. In the previous clashes both the armies tend to raise red banner which indicates trespassing upon their territory. The present situation is much severe as the invasion first time happened on 5th May 2020. The whole situation occurred on the Pangong lake – which is in Ladakh. The Line of Actual Control passes through this lake.

Pangong Lake and Galwan Valley Intrusion

While discussing the intrusion in the Pangong lake, it is crucial to understand that Line of Actual Control (LAC) passes through the Pangong lake and divides India and China. The Lake is divided into eight fingers or areas, i.e. finger one, finger two, till finger eight. Finger eight is towards the Chinese territory, whereas finger one is towards the Indian territory. The Indian Army claims that the eighth finger extracts LAC. China troops claim that LAC lies on the finger two areas. So here the difference arises which leads into dispute and intrusion. Recently, the tension increased when troops reached finger five during patrolling, which lead to stone-pelting and fistfights Galwan in which many soldiers got also injured which after few led into a serious fight in which 20  Indian soldiers died, and 40 Chinese soldiers died.

This time the issue is serious because the intrusion has taken place in the major areas that are – Pangong Lake, Galwan Valley, and Hot springs near Kongka Pass.

As with many articles and news, the situation is worse in Galwan Valley where the Chinese troops have settled at the Galwan Valley heights. They are strategically overlooking the road which heads towards the Daulat Beg Oldi. They can fire on it, which can lead Indians to stop using that road because of which they can attack easily and more dangerously. This intrusion is actually inside the Indian territory. The intrusion towards the Hot Springs is not that dangerous because of the reasons that are just to distract and distort the soldiers.


Many meetings between the top military commanders of both countries are going on. It is yet an unresolved situation. The talks are going on to find the solution at all levels, whether diplomatic, political, military, etc. to find a peaceful solution.

Every solution has to be resolved in peace. The results behind the clashes and war bring a lot of loss in every aspect, whether economical, life loss, mental health, etc.

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