Consequences of Bordering India: What Territorial Dispute Does it Have With Other Countries?

Must Read

Bhupinder Singh Mann Quits From the Farm Committee Constituted by the Supreme Court

Bhupinder Singh Mann, one of the members nominated to the Farms Law Committee formed by the Supreme Court for negotiating with the farmers, has quit from the panel saying that he cannot compromise the interest of the Punjab and Farmers of the country and for this, he is ready to sacrifice any position.

Maharashtra To Write To Other States To Club Their Reservation Cases With the Maratha Quota Petition

After seeking intervention by the Centre in the ongoing hearing in the present case regarding the Maratha Reservation in the Supreme Court, the Maharashtra Government is pondering upon the idea of approaching other states to club all the petitions regarding reservations for a collective decision.

MoHFW Says Mask Is Not Necessary While Travelling Alone in a Private Vehicle

The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) of the Government of India informed the Delhi High Court that it has not issued any guidelines with regards to the compulsion of wearing masks even while travelling alone in a vehicle.

What are the Recent Developments in Iran-Venezuela Relations?

Two of the world's biggest oil exporters are reestablishing bonhomie. Iran and Venezuela are again the topics of discussion in global geopolitics. Iran has recently supplied arms and military soldiers to Venezuela early this year; it had also supplied gasoline to Venezuela.

Targeting the Supreme Court Judges

A letter was written by Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister to the Chief Justice of India on October 6 targeting one...

Increase of Poll Expenditure Ceiling by the Indian Government

The law ministry has increased the ceiling on poll expenditure by 10% for Lok Sabha and Assembly elections following a recommendation...

Follow us

India has many disputed territories. A territorial conflict is a conflict over the control of the region among two or more nations. It can be over the possession of a particular region by a new nation. The force upon seizing land from an old nation, that no longer accepts its right.

India and China

In the western area, India shares about a 2152 km long border with China. This is between the Union Territory of Ladakh and Xinjiang Province of China. A land dispute over Aksai Chin occurs in this area. India claims to be part of the former Kashmir, while China claims to be part of Xinjiang. 

The conflict over Aksai Chin is the result of the vagueness by the British Empire. It was their inability to define a legitimate boundary among both China as well as its Indian colony. There was a proposal of two national boundaries Johnson ‘s Line and McDonald Line. The Johnson ‘s line(1865) shows Aksai Chin in former Jammu and Kashmir (now Ladakh) i.e. under India ‘s control.

McDonald Line (proposed in 1893) establishes this under China ‘s control. Johnson Line is the legitimate national border that India shares with China. While China sees the McDonald Line as the right border to India. The Line of Actual Control separates Ladakh (Indian areas) and Aksai Chin Indian Areas. It is concurrent with the disputed line of the Chinese Aksai Chin.

On the eastern side, the country shares a 1,140 km long border with China. It passes from Bhutan’s eastern limit to a site near Talu Pass at Tibet, India, and Myanmar tri-junction. This line of boundaries is the McMahon Line. The Shimla Convention 1914 outlined the McMahon line on the map. This was further accepted by the Tibetan officials. Thereby, China claims the McMahon Line to be unlawful and unacceptable. 

India and Pakistan

Pakistan has almost occupied 78,000 sq.Km of Jammu and Kashmir in an illegal manner. Pakistan occupied J&K actually belonged to the Indian Territory. Besides this, Pakistan also ceded 5,180 sq km to China. This happened under the so-called Sino-Pakistan Boundary Agreement of 1963.

Siachen Glacier is in the eastern Karakorams of the Himalayas. It is at the east of the Actual Ground Position Line between both the countries. The complete Siachen Glacier is under Indian administration since 1984. It also includes all the major passes. This was possible because of Operation Meghdoot conducted in 1984.

The mountainous region of the Saltoro mountain ranges is a subrange. This is of either the Karakoram Heights or the Saltoro Ridge. They are on the southwest side of the Siachen Glacier. This is in the core of the Karakoram. According to India, they are the part of Jammu and Kashmir Union Territory. Whereas, according to Pakistan, they are part of Gilgit-Baltistan.

In 1984, India took military control of both the major peaks and range passes. Sir Creek is a disputed 96 km long strip of water. It is in the Rann of Kutch marshlands between India and Pakistan

Pakistan asserts that the line to follow the estuary’s eastern shore belongs to them. While India asserts that the centerline belongs to them. India claims the centerline. Although the centerline is different from the definitions.

 The definitions were in paragraphs 9 and 10 of the 1914 Bombay Government Resolution. This resolution was between the then Sindh Government and Rao Maharaj of Kutch. The international border between the two is not demarcated in the Sir Creek area and of the International Maritime Boundary Line (IMBL).

India and Nepal

Kalapani is a valley which India administers as part of Uttarakhand’s Pithoragarh district. It is on route Kailash Mansarovar. India ‘s recent political map affirmed Indian claims about the region. The region which Nepal asserts belongs to its westernmost part. Indian government declared Uttarakhand as part of the historic area. In the Kalapani area, the Kali River defines the boundary between India and Nepal. The Kingdom of Nepal and British India signed the Sugauli Treaty in 1816. It placed the Kali River as the western frontier of Nepal with India. The conflict about the origin of this river led to conflicts between these countries.

Each nation created its own maps promoting its own argument. Susta region is among the disputed lands between India (Uttar Pradesh) and Nepal. Susta lies on the bank of the Gandak River (in Nepal called the Narayani River). The Gandak river’s change in direction is the primary factor for conflicts within the Susta area.

India and Sri Lanka 

India and Sri Lanka have a border to the sea. Between both the nations exists a 30-km long deep channel, the Palk Strait. Though peace has resided, when it comes to the Indo-Sri Lankan border problem. There have been conflicts over who owned Kachchatheevu Island in the Palk Strait. In 1974, India gave it to Sri Lanka.

India and Bangladesh

There have been some major conflicts between India and Bangladesh. The implementation of the landmark “Land Boundary Agreement” helped in fixing these conflicts. This lead to the approval of the Land Boundary Agreement 1974 and its 2011 Protocol. This took place during the Indian Prime Minister’s visit to Bangladesh in June 2015. The implementation of the Agreement and framework has resolved the conflicts.

Ways to resolve the conflict

Article 33 of the Charter of the United Nations says that the parties to any dispute need to seek the solution. Parties mean nations susceptible to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security.

For resolving the dispute countries can opt for – 

  • Negotiation
  • Inquiry;
  • Mediation;
  • Conciliation;
  • Arbitration;
  • Judicial settlement;
  • Or by recourse to regional agencies, arrangements or other peaceful means.

Thus it is necessary for a country to make legal opinions. The explanation of the opinions needs to be lucid and compelling at the same time.

One should not be way too optimistic about the influence of international law. Especially in the monitoring of conflicts between the nations. There are certain restrictions to international law, according to several legal scholars. Those regulations are tools that Countries use to pursue their interests. In other terms, countries are rational actors. They’re using international norms whenever the law protects their country’s interests. And if the law harms their national interests they will disregard the same.

Conclusion

India needs to plan about its neighboring countries, particularly China and Pakistan. India’s unresolved boundaries cause big difficulties. China is setting irrational claims on regions. The regions that already been a part of India. It is not workable for India to follow the frontier with China. There needs to be more productive diplomatic involvement between the two nations. So, that they can mitigate their border disputes, which have lasted for decades. As for Pakistan, the two nations must come to the negotiating table. So as the countries can analyze their critical issues. Pakistan should call for an end to any form of support for terrorism and its “Proxy War” against India. So that it can bring India on the board to address border disputes.


Libertatem.in is now on Telegram. Follow us for regular legal updates and judgements from the court. Follow us on Google News, InstagramLinkedInFacebook & Twitter. You can also subscribe for our Weekly Email Updates. You can also contribute stories like this and help us spread awareness for a better society. Submit Your Post Now.

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Latest News

WhatsApp Emails Delhi HC Judge Asking Her Not To Hear the Plea Challenging New Privacy Policy

The Delhi High Court raised strong objection to an E-mail sent by WhatsApp asking a judge not to hear the plea which challenges its new privacy policy. Justice Pratibha Singh said that the e-mail that was withdrawn later was totally unwarranted as she was anyway going to recuse from hearing the plea which was filed by Rohilla Chaitanya who contends that the new privacy policy of WhatsApp provides 360-degree access to a customer’s virtual activity and is against the fundamental right of privacy.

TRP Scam Case: Bombay HC Extends Protection To Arnab Goswami and Other Employees Till the Next Hearing

On Friday, the Bombay High court extended the protection that was given, to Republic TV’s Editor in Chief Arnab Goswami and other employees of ARG Outlier Media Private Limited till January 29th in the alleged case of Television Rating Point manipulation. A status report was submitted by the police to the division bench of Justices S.S.Shinde and Manish Pitale by the Police on the ongoing case.

Plea Seeks FIR Against Maharashtra Minister Dhananjay Munde in Bombay HC for False Info

A plea has been filed in Bombay High Court seeking an FIR against Maharashtra minister Dhananjay Munde who is undergoing times of trouble due to his extra-marital affair. Recently, an FIR had been lodged against Munde by a woman, accusing him of raping her sister. Munde clarified that he was actually in a relationship with that woman and had two children. He accused the two women of blackmailing him.

Writ Petition for Compensation Accepted by Calcutta High Court 

Introduction The Petitioner Purna Ch. Biswas filed a Writ Petition with the complaint that their claims for a higher quantum of compensation have not yet...

No Members Could Be Disqualified Without Authorisation by Political Party: Gujarat High Court

Excerpt The dispute application no.7 of 2020 filed by respondent no.2 before designated authority. Thereafter the designated authority order dated 28.10.2020 disqualified the petitioner and...

Delhi High Court Directs Delhi Jal Board To Make Supply of Potable Drinking Water

The High Court of Delhi in the matter of Delhi Sainik Cooperation Housing Ltd. v. Union of India & Ors held that right to...

Punjab & Haryana High Court Orders Security To BJP Leader Alleged for Not Supporting Farmers Protest

The Order had come in the form of a Writ Petition filed by Tikshan Sood under Article 226 of the Constitution. The petition before...

Lahore High Court Outlaws Two-Finger Virginity Test

The Lahore High Court in Pakistan has outlawed the use and conduct of virginity tests, namely, the use of the “two-finger” virginity test and...

London Court Rejects Assange’s Extradition – What Happens Now? 

Earlier last week, District Judge Vanessa Baraitser, sitting in the Westminster Magistrates’ Court denied the Government of the U.S.A.'s request to the U.K. to...

Calcutta High Court Decides in Favor of Contractor as He Accidentally Pays an Excessively High Amount

Introduction The present writ petition has been filed for a writ in the nature of mandamus commanding the Respondents to revoke the Petitioner’s offer as...

More Articles Like This

- Advertisement -