Artificial Intelligence – Law & Future

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Abstract

Artificial Intelligence (A.I.) is a multidisciplinary field whose goal is to automate activities that presently require human intelligence. Recent successes in A.I. include computerized medical diagnosticians and systems that automatically customize hardware to particular user requirements. The major problem areas addressed in A.I. can be summarized as Perception, Manipulation, Reasoning, Communication, and Learning. Perception is concerned with building models of the physical world from sensory input (visual, audio, etc.). Manipulation is concerned with articulating appendages (e.g., mechanical arms, locomotion devices) to affect a desired state in the physical world. The reasoning is concerned with higher-level cognitive functions such as planning, drawing inferential conclusions from a world model, diagnosing, designing, etc. Communication treats the problem understanding and conveying information through the use of language. Finally, Learning treats the problem of automatically improving system performance over time based on the system’s experience.

Many important technical concepts have arisen from A.I. that unify these diverse problem areas and that form the foundation of the scientific discipline. Generally, A.I. systems function based on a Knowledge Base of facts and rules that characterize the system’s domain of proficiency. The elements of a Knowledge Base consist of independently valid (or at least plausible) chunks of information. The system must automatically organize and utilize this information to solve the specific problems that it encounters.

Definition

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. These processes include learning (the acquisition of information and rules for using the information), reasoning (using rules to reach approximate or definite conclusions), and self-correction.

Current applications of Artificial Intelligence in different Sectors

Manufacturing

Innovation in Artificial Intelligence and the Internet of Things are the keys to being competitive in the manufacturing sector. Industry 4.0, in which Artificial Intelligence provides robotization, Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, and nanotechnology. (Industry 4.0). Industry 4.0 referred to as IoT or smart manufacturing, involves physical production and operations with smart digital technology, machine learning, and big data to create a more holistic and better-connected ecosystem for companies that focus on manufacturing and supply chain management.

With the promise of increased output, robots are already being used in the manufacturing companies. But with their growing intelligence, the workforce in factories will soon be replaced by robots. Every stage can be closely monitored with the help of sensors and data can be shared with AI and analytics software. Increased output, defect detection, and corrective action are much faster and the entire production cycle is way more efficient.

Energy

According to a study by Infosys, 29% of energy companies worldwide say they have implemented solutions based on Artificial Intelligence and are satisfied with the results Only 4% of companies in the sector say they have no plans to incorporate AI into their processes. Applications based on Artificial Intelligence that is currently being used in utilizing the energy with maximum efficiency are: forecasting energy supply and demand, making intelligent analysis in real-time, detecting errors predictive maintenance, and energy efficiency.

Logistics and Transport 

Artificial Intelligence is making important advances in the transport sector. These include self-driving cars, radars to detect obstacles and pedestrians, intelligent search for free parking spaces, and route optimization. Machine learning could soon be used to predict and prevent traffic jams. Engineers in both Singapore and China have been working on traffic management systems that would process complex data to advise on the best routes for drivers.

Insurance 

Artificial Intelligence is mainly used in the areas of customer service, production, and innovation. For example, using Chatbots to resolve questions that customers have 24 hours a day, identifying customer’s problems and trends through data. Insurers can fast-track claims, reducing the time and costs of processing while enhancing customer experience through smart automatization or RPA (robotic process automation)

Education

Education will be the sector that will undergo the most change between now and 2030.

Artificial Intelligence will help in the transformation to personalize education for each student to their needs and capabilities. Applications of this technology in the educational field will be mainly in virtual reality, educational robotics, intelligent tutoring systems, and learning analytics. Teachers may not always be aware of gaps in their lectures and educational materials that can leave students confused about certain concepts. Artificial intelligence offers a way to solve that problem. Coursera, a massive open online course provider, is already putting this into practice. When a large number of students are found to submit the wrong answer to a homework assignment, the system alerts the teacher and gives future students a customized message that offers hints to the correct answer. Using AI systems, software, and support, students can learn from anywhere in the world at any time, and with these kinds of programs taking the place of certain types of classroom instruction, AI may just replace teachers in some instances (for better or worse). Educational programs powered by AI are already helping students to learn basic skills, but as these programs grow and as developers learn more, they will likely offer students a much wider range of services.

Emerging Challenges of Artificial Intelligence & Artificial Intelligence Law in Different Verticals

Building Trust

AI is all related to science and algorithms, which lies on the technical side. People who are completely unaware of these algorithms and technology that lies behind the working of Artificial intelligence find it difficult to understand its functioning. Here is how artificial intelligence can face trust issues with humans, despite its ability to cut down on tasks. It is basic human psychology that we often neglect something that we don’t understand. We as humans tend to stay away from anything complicated. And artificial intelligence is related to huge data, data science, and algorithms, there are times when users do not grasp these concepts.

Investment

Another challenge of artificial intelligence is that not all business owners or managers are willing to invest in it. The funds required to set up and implement Artificial Intelligence is very high, thus not every business owner or organization can invest in it or can try it for their own business.

Limited Access to Computing Resources and Human Capital

Developers, researchers, and implementers in various governmental organizations or agencies may have difficulties obtaining and funding the computing power and talent-intense needs of AI systems.

AI Can’t Replace Every Task

Ever since AI made its way into our lives, we have a notion that all tasks, minute or a gigantic, can be managed by artificial intelligence. However, this can be true to a certain extent. But not all the tasks can be undertaken by AI. AI is more like a tool that helps increase the productivity of a task. It can replace all the worldly tasks with machines and lets you do more productive tasks with your time. This is a tool that strengthens and boosts the performance and efficiency of an average worker.

Legal and Regulatory Hurdles

The rapid advancement and application of AI systems have in some ways outpaced the regulatory framework to govern how and these systems should be used effectively and safely in its numerous applications. New technological expertise within the government will be needed to make sure that the policy for AI is up to date and appropriate for the technology.

Lack of Technical Knowledge

To integrate, deploy, and implement AI applications in the enterprise, the organization must know the current AI advancement and technologies as well as its shortcomings. The lack of technical know-how is hindering the adoption of this niche domain in most of the organization. Only 6% of enterprises, currently, having a smooth ride adopting AI technologies. Enterprise requires a specialist to identify the roadblocks in the deployment process. Skilled human resources would also help the team work with Return on in tracking of adopting AI/ML solutions.

Future Ahead

A Move Towards “Transparent AI”

The adoption of AI across wider society – particularly when it involves dealing with human data – is hindered by the “black box problem.” Mostly, its workings seem arcane and unfathomable without a thorough understanding of what it’s doing. In 2019 we’re likely to see an increased emphasis on measures designed to increase the transparency of AI. This year IBM unveiled technology developed to improve the traceability of decisions into its AI Open Scale technology. This concept gives real-time insights into not only what decisions are being made, but how they are being made, drawing connections between data that is used, decision weighting, and potential for bias in information. The General Data Protection Regulation, put into action across Europe this year, gives citizens some protection against decisions that have “legal or other significant” impact on their lives made solely by machines. While it isn’t yet a blisteringly hot political potato, its prominence in public discourse is likely to grow during 2019, further encouraging businesses to work towards transparency.

More Jobs Will Be Created by AI Than Will Be Lost To It

While 1.8 million jobs will be lost to automation – with manufacturing in particular singled out as likely to take a hit – 2.3 million will be created. In particular, the report finds, these could be focused on education, healthcare, and the public sector. A likely driver for this disparity is the emphasis placed on rolling out AI in an “augmenting” capacity when it comes to deploying it in non-manual jobs. Warehouse workers and retail cashiers have often been replaced wholesale by automated technology. But when it comes to doctors and lawyers, AI service providers have made a concerted effort to present their technology as something which can work alongside human professionals, assisting them with repetitive tasks while leaving the “final say” to them. This means those industries benefit from the growth in human jobs on the technical side – those needed to deploy the technology and train the workforce on using it – while retaining the professionals who carry out the actual work.


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