A Critical Analysis of the National Green Tribunal and the Elephant Corridors

Must Read

What is the Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016?

The Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016 (“RERA”) is an Act of the Parliament. It seeks to protect...

Should the Exorbitant Amounts Charged for RT-PCR Tests be Refunded?

Introduction A plea has been filed in the Honourable Supreme Court of India seeking a refund of exorbitant amounts charged...

Should CCTV’s be Installed in the Police Station?

Introduction In a recent judgment, the bench led by Justice Nariman issued directions to both the state and Union Territory...

A Legal Analysis of the West Bengal Political Crisis on IPS Deputation

The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has recently summoned three IPS officers of West Bengal (WB). The decision was...

Explained: Postal Ballot for NRIs

At the end of November 2020, Election Commission sent a proposal to the law ministry to amend the Representation...

Explained: Constitutional Provisions and Legislations With Regards to a Person with Disabilities

The world celebrates December 3 as International Day of Persons with Disabilities (IDPD). This day is also called World...

Follow us


Wildlife is one of the most vital ecosystems which have been provided by Mother Earth. The term ‘wildlife’ refers to the collection of animals that live in the wild and are undomesticated. India is known for its rich wildlife, and it has approximately 65,000 species of fauna consisting of fishes, mammals, and birds, but in recent years, India has seen a decline in the number of animal species since most of them are hunted by humans for their utility or their entertainment. Several efforts have been made in India for the protection of wildlife like enacting the Indian forests Act, 1927 which restricted people from hunting in forests and reserves. Also, Article 51-A (g) of the Indian Constitution has imposed the fundamental duty of every Indian Citizen to protect the wildlife in the country, but since this duty is unenforceable in the court of law, no strict action is taken against the people who violate this duty.

Why is NGT in the News?

Recently, an NGO (Odisha Wildlife Society) has moved to the National Green Tribunal (hereafter referred to as ‘NGT’) regarded the strengthening of the elephant corridors and thus in the light of this case, the NGT in its verdict has directed the Odisha Government to prepare an action plan within 3 months on the 14 identified elephant corridors which would provide stress-free migration to the elephants from one habitat to another in the state.

Why did this Issue Arise Now?

The NGT, in the year 2017, had directed the authorities regarding the demarcation of the elephant corridors and formal notification within a specific time frame but the state governments sought more time from the NGT on formulating an action plan, and thus they failed to do so and thus sighting concerns for the Asian elephant, the NGO approached the NGT.

What is the Demand of the Petitioners?

The NGO (petitioner) demands the NGT to take:

  1. Necessary legal action against those who encroach and violate the provisions of the Indian forests Act, 1927 and the Forest Conservation Act, 1980 in the proposed corridors.
  2. Direct the Indian Government to remove unauthorized buildings where the acute human-elephant conflict arises and makes the forests and reserves in the proposed corridors free from encroachment.

What are the Elephant Corridors and Why Do They Need Strengthening?

Elephant corridors are linear and narrow strips of land which allows the elephants to move securely from one habitat to another without any human conflict. As per the census of 2017, India has by far the largest number of Asian Elephants in the world which is approximately around 27,312, which is almost 55% of the species global population. Thus, to safeguard them, reserves were created in 14 states covering an area of 65,814 sq. Km of forests but these reserves had a human intervention, and they were not also legally protected.

The Elephant, being a large mammal, requires space for free movement in their areas which helps in maintaining a genetic flow and offset seasonal variations in the availability of food and water. The forest lands started decreasing with the increase in the human population, and thus the need for elephant corridors arose as if the elephants are not able to move freely in their home ranges in isolated populations then it would have a devastating effect on India’s natural heritage.

Here, a question arises as “Why should elephants be protected?”

The answer to the abovementioned question is that the elephants are regarded as the keystone species. The environment they live in, the migrations they make are important to the environment. Other reasons as to why elephants should be protected are as follows:

  1. Elephants are regarded as landscape artists as they clear the forests and thus prevent the plants and trees from overgrowing, which in turn leads to the regeneration of other species in the wildlife.
  2. Elephants help in seed dispersal as they are vegetarian and their main source of food is plants, fruits, and seeds, and these seeds are then defecated by them from place to place as they travel.
  3. The dung of the elephants provides nourishment to plants and other animals and also serves as a breeding ground for insects, and thus, they provide nutrition to the environment.
  4. The elephants, who are allowed to roam freely, create an umbrella effect as they provide a suitable habitat for other species of plants and animals and thus are the saviors of the ecosystem.

Thus, India comprises 101 elephant corridors out of which six have been secured and the next six are in the process of being secured which is a very low number and thus efforts should be taken by the Government of India to secure all the 101 elephant corridors as they provide the elephants with the ‘Right to Passage’.

Efforts Were Undertaken at an All-India Level for Securing the Elephant Habitat

Several efforts have been undertaken by the Government of India and other organizations and NGOs like Wildlife Trust of India (WTI), etc. which are discussed below:

  1. Gaj-Yatra Campaign: The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change along with the Wildlife Trust of India (WTI) on the occasion of World Elephant Day in the year 2017 rolled-out a campaign by the name of ‘Gaj-Yatra’. The campaign is a journey which celebrates India’s National Heritage animal and is launched to create awareness about the elephant corridors and how one can encourage their free movement. This was a 15-Month campaign.
  2. Gaj-Mahotsav: The Wildlife Trust of India, in the year 2018, also held a Gaj-Mahotsav in New Delhi. The Mahotsav was for 4 days where more than 3000 attendees ranging from artists, celebrities to politicians and conservationists came together to celebrate the Asian Elephant’s status as the National Heritage Animal and also inspired each other to protect the elephant corridors.
  3. Forest Ministry’s guide to managing human-elephant conflict: The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change launched a guide where the best practices to manage human and elephant conflict were mentioned and which are as follows:
  4. Retention of elephants in their natural habitats and providing them with water resources and management of forest fires.
  5. Creation of Elephant proof trenches especially in the areas of Tamil Nadu.
  6. Creation of hanging fences and rubber walls, especially in the state of Karnataka.
  7. Setting up of Individual identification and monitoring of elephants system, especially in the region of South Bengal and also sending SMS alerts in case of elephant presence.
  8. Asian Elephant Alliance: The initiative was formed by the collaboration of five NGOs in the year 2019 who had come together to secure 96 out of 101 elephant corridors across 12 states in India.


As discussed in the article, several efforts and initiatives have been made by the Indian Government as well as the people of India, but still, there is a need for stricter laws relating to the protection of wildlife in the country. The statutes such as the Wildlife Act, Indian forests Act, etc. require several amendments with the new provisions of stricter punishments and fines which will be imposed on the encroachers.

Libertatem.in is now on Telegram. Follow us for regular legal updates and judgment from courts. Follow us on Google News, InstagramLinkedInFacebook & Twitter. You can subscribe to our Weekly Email Updates. You can also contribute stories like this and help us spread awareness for a better society. Submit Your Post Now.


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Latest News

“Anganwadi Centers to Be Reopened Outside the Containment Zones, Which Is to Be Decided by the State”: Supreme Court

This case concerns the reopening of the Anganwadi Centers after they had been closed due to the lockdown being imposed.  Brief facts of the case This...

“Credit Facilities Being Granted by the Primary Agricultural Credit Society to the Non-Members Is No Longer Illegal”: Supreme Court

This Case concerns the dispute relating to the grant of tax exemption under Section 80P of the Income Tax Act, 1961.  Brief facts of the...

Back Wages of Labourers is a Question of Facts Depending Upon Various Factors: Gujarat High Court

The petition has been filed by workmen and employer against an award dated 23.04.2009 passed by the Labour Court, Bhuj in the case of...

WhatsApp Messages Would Have No Evidentiary Value Until They Are Certified According to Section 65b of the Indian Evidence Act: Punjab & Haryana High...

Brief facts of the case Paramjit Kaur, the proprietor of Brioshine Pharma, a licensed chemist, booked two consignments. The first consignment, on 10.06.2020 and the,...

Delhi High Court Seeks Response From Centre, RBI in PIL to Regulate Online Lending Platforms

A notice had been issued by the Delhi HC in a PIL that sought regulation of online lending platforms (Dharanidhar Karimojji vs UOI). Brief Facts: The...

“Consensual Affair” Cannot Be Defence Against the Charge of Kidnapping of the Minor, Sentence Reduced in View of Age Difference: Supreme Court

This Case concerns the appeal against the conviction under the charges of kidnapping and discussed whether the punishment was to be enhanced or not.   Brief...

Delhi HC to Municipal Corp: Paucity of Funds Not an Excuse for Non-Payment of Salaries and Pensions

The Delhi High Court ruled that the paucity of funds cannot be an excuse and pulled up municipal corporations for not paying salaries and pensions to their employees as the right to receive payment is a fundamental right guaranteed in our constitution.

US Supreme Court Reinstates Restriction on Abortion Pills

The Supreme Court of the United States granted the Trump administration’s request to reinstate federal rules requiring women to make in-person visits to hospitals...

Supreme Court Upheld “Environmental Rule of Law” in NGT Decision to Demolish Illegal Hotel on Forest Land

This case concerns the dispute relating to the additional construction of hotel-cum-restaurant structure in the Bus Stand Complex along with a bus stand and...

UK Supreme Court Rules in Favour of Policyholders in the COVID-19 Business Interruption Case

The United Kingdom’s Supreme Court finally concluded the long-awaited COVID-19 business interruption case brought by the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) and the Hiscox Action...

More Articles Like This

- Advertisement -